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Eltijani M. Humaida and Dr. Abdelmula M. Abdalla*


Background: Smoking is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is a marker of long-term glucose homeostasis reflecting an average blood glucose concentration in past 2-3 month. Objective: this study was done to evaluated the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level in the non diabetics Sudanese smokers and nonsmokers and compare the levels between the two groups to assess the effect of smoking on (HbA1C) level. Material and Method: This is cross-sectional case control study. It was performed in Khartoum and white Nile state the study involving 100 participants, all participants were selected randomly from the general population. 50 participants, non diabetic male of age group between (19-67) years who smoke (10) cigarettes per day or more for not less than one year. 50 healthy age matched non diabetic males who do not smoke cigarette were marked as control group. Random blood (HbA1C) concentration was estimated in all subjects and the values were compared between the case and control. Result: There was a high significant increase in the (HbA1C) level in smokers 6.88±0.39 when compared with the non smokers 6.26±0.49 with p.value (0.00). Furthermore there is significant correlation between (HbA1C) level with duration of smoking and age of smokers in the test group (r = 0.414, p =0.003. r = 0.365, p=0.009) respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that cigarettes smoking in non-diabetic Sudanese individuals caused significant increases in the glycosylated hemoglobin level especially the long-term smoking.

Keywords: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HA1C), Non-Diabetic, homeostasis. Smokers, Sudanese.

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