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Abstract

DISPOSAL OF DEAD BIRDS AND MANURE IN POULTRY FARMS UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN

Elniema A. Mustafa* Eman Mustafa Hamad, M.M.O. Elhassan, Adil M. A. Salman, Elsiddig M.M.E. and Lamyia M.A.

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted between Dec 2015 and Jan 2018 during dry and wet seasons in two consecutive years with the objective of evaluating the disposal of manure and dead birds in poultry farms located in Khartoum State, Sudan. Seventy four commercial poultry farms (47 broilers and 27 layers) of different production systems (closed, semi closed and open systems) and management systems (cage and floor) were investigated. Data were collected by on farm visits during which interviews, using questionnaires, with the owners and veterinarians of the farms were done. A scoring system which was separated into 2 main categories, external and internal biosecurity, and comprised questions on different dead birds and manure disposal measures was initiated. Based upon the different weights given according to measures based on risk to each biosecurity measure and (sub) category, a final weight and risk-based score was calculated. The study revealed that only 7 (9.46%) farms disposed their manure and dead birds properly using incineration. Fifty seven farms (77.03%) disposed their manure and dead birds improperly, 8 (10.81%) used burial method and 2 (2.70%) threw dead birds over the fence. The study also showed that final removal methods of dead birds and manure were highly affected by the size of the farm, such as the removal of manure through the dirty area (P-value =.001), separate carcass storage (P-value =.007), and collection of carcasses by the municipality trucks without entering the farm (P-value =.044). The methods of final removal of dead birds and manure were also affected by production system, such as manure being removed through the dirty area (P-value =.003) and whether carcass storage regularly cleaned and disinfected (P-value =.002). The study also revealed that management system had significant influence on the methods of final removal of manure. This was particularly observed in separate carcass storage (P-value =.005) and the associated regularly cleaning and disinfection (P-value =.037). In conclusion, this study had shown that improper disposal of dead birds and manure were practiced by most of the farms.

Keywords: Farm Biosecurity, Manure, Dead birds disposal, Incineration.


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