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Abstract

ACUTE AND SUB-CHRONIC NEPHROTOXICITY STUDY ON ORALLY ADMINISTERED LEAF EXTRACT OF SPONDIAS MOMBIN IN MALE WISTAR ALBINO RAT

*Nwaogwugwu J. C., Elekwa I., Friday U. O., Okereke C. S., Ezekwe A. S., Egege A. N., and Akara E.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Spondias mombin has been reported to possess medicinal properties. Method: The preliminary phytochemical analysis was determined by the method described by Harbone 1973 and sofowora, 1982 and the Lethal dose was carried out and median lethal dose was calculated using modified method of Lorke (1983). Twenty five (25) apparently healthy female albino rats aged seven weeks weighing between 76-91g were randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each. Group I served as control, while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received the aqueous leaf extract at 200,400,600 and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively. Results: Phytochemical constituent of Spondias mombin was Evaluated and the effects of aqueous leaf extract on some biochemical parameters in albino rats studied. Acute toxicity studies showed that the extract was safe at 500mg/kg body weight dose to albino rats. The results showed that liver enzymes ALT, AST and ALP increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to control. Total Bilirubin decreased while conjugated bilibrubin increased significantly (p<0.05). There were significant decrease in Lipid profile test, Cholesterol, triglyceride and Low density lipoprotein as concentration of extract administered increased from 400 mg/kg body weight while high density lipoprotein increased. Erythrocyte, hemoglobin, Leukocyte and hematocrit increased significantly (p<0.05). Potassium and calcium ion decreased, while Chloride increased non-significantly as Sodium concentration was not affected. These effects were dose dependent. Urea, total protein and Albumin significantly reduced (p<0.05) while creatinine increased significantly. Phytochemicals present include flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, glycosides, steroids and terpenes. Histological studies showed alterations in the architecture of the liver, kidney as the dose of extract administered increased from 400 to 800mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: This study has shown that the extract is safe only when administered at 200mg/kg body weight and below.

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