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Abstract

EFFECT OF ARTESUNATE, ESOMEPRAZOLE AND COFFEE INTAKE ON PRODROMAL PARKINSON’S DISEASE FEATURES IN ADULT MEN

*Dr. S. E. Oriaifo, Prof I. Abdul-Aguye, Dr. H. O. Omeife and Prof. R. Ozolua

ABSTRACT

The convergent molecular mechanisms of aging, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease offer druggable targets. Present drugs for treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) often fail to maintain steady efficacy and are often associated with undesirable side- effects There is now a paradigm shift in this age-related neurodegenerative disorder to agents that co-operatively target immune activation, the noxious agents-induced ATP-P2X7 cell death receptor-NLRP3inflammasome-adenosine A2A receptor-HMGBI signalling, upregulate the anti-oxidant Nrf-2/ARE axis, insulin signalling, and enhance mitochondrial function to attenuate the hallmarks of this intriguing disease. Animal experimentations demonstrated that artesunate (30 mg/kg) has a significant additive effect (P < 0.05) with caffeine (6 mg/kg) in lowering glucose and uric acid levels in ad libitum high-lipid + low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic male mice compared to controls. In the clinical work, the effect of low-dose artesunate (12.5 mg daily) and low-dose esomeprazole (10 mg daily) use in conjunction with coffee intake was investigated in 5 elderly patients with prodromal Parkinson’s disease who had non-motor symptoms and the motor symptoms of bradykinesia, tremors, rigidity and postural imbalance. 3 weeks institution of the combined therapy significantly (P < 0.05) abrogated the postural imbalance, tremors and rigidity; and improved the bradykinesia, rapid eye movement sleep behavioural disorder and memory decline. The implication of the present study is that the combined remedies deserve more attention in the prevention of the progression and treatment not only of Parkinson’s disease but also of other age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Prodromal Stage; Coffee; Esomeprazole; Artesunate; Abrogation; Hallmarks.


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