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Abstract

SYNERGISTIC IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIALS OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA DELILE STEM AND CARICA PAPAYA LIN. SEEDS

David Ntinagyei Mintah*, Anna Kwarley Quartey, Akosua Bemah Oppong, Isaac Ayensu and John Antwi Apenteng

ABSTRACT

Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya are medicinal plants used ethnobotanically for treatment of various conditions including helminthes infestations. Ethanol extracts of V. amygdalina stem (EVAS) and C. papaya seeds (ECPS) and chloroform extracts of V. amygdalina stem (CVAS) and C. papaya seeds (CCPS) were evaluated for synergistic in-vitro anthelmintic activity. After cold maceration of both plant materials, percentage yields of 2.398%, 4.494%, 2.480% and 3.892% were obtained for CVAS, EVAS, CCPS and ECPS respectively, which could be due to polarity difference of solvents used. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the extracts from both plants revealed the presence of phyto-constituents such as tannins, saponin glycosides, reducing sugars, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in all the plant extracts (EVAS, ECPS, CVAS and CCPS). There was the presence of terpenoids in EVAS and ECPS but absent in CVAS and CCPS. All the extracts (EVAS, ECPS, CVAS and CCPS) however showed the absence of anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and cyanogenetic glycosides. Five concentrations (18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 mg/ml) of each extract were evaluated by determining the effects of the extracts on the paralytic and death times of Pheretima posthuma using piperazine citrate (15mg/ml) and albendazole (20mg/ml) respectively as reference drugs. Ethanol extracts of both plants were added in a ratio of 1:1, and their chloroform extracts also in the same ratio to achieve the final concentrations (18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 mg/ml) and was assessed for any synergistic effect. The extracts demonstrated a concentration dependent anthelmintic activity as (EVAS + ECPS) > (CVAS + CCPS) > ECPS > CCPS > EVASB > CVASB.

Keywords: Anthelmintic, synergistic, Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya, Pheretima posthuma.


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